Baseline Characteristics (6 months) Fall/Fracture (n = 3886) No Fall/Fracture (n = 12 767) Relative Difference (%) P Value
Age, mean ± SD [median] 66.2± 12.8 [65] 61.9 ± 1.4 [60] 7.0 <.01
≥65, n (%) 1960 (50.4) 4521 (35.4) 42.4 <.01
Gender, male, n (%) 1086 (27.9) 4955 (38.8) -28.0 <.01
Region, n (%)
East North Central 1398 (36.0) 4124 (32.3) 11.4 <.01
East South Central 126 (3.2) 465 (3.6) -11.0 .24
Middle Atlantic 681 (17.5) 2483 (19.4) -9.9 <.01
Mountain 145 (3.7) 536 (4.2) -11.1 .20
New England 103 (2.7) 331 (2.6) 2.2 .84
West South Central 251 (6.5) 934 (7.3) -11.7 .07
Pacific 139 (3.6) 486 (3.8) -6.0 .51
South Atlantic 338 (8.7) 1379 (10.8) -19.5 <.01
West North Central 272 (7.0) 864 (6.8) 3.4 .62
Unknown 433 (11.1) 1165 (9.1) 22.1 <.01
Large metropolitan area, n (%) 329 (8.5) 1170 (9.2) -7.6 .18
Clinical characteristics
Comorbidities, n (%)
Acute renal failure 111 (2.9) 145 (1.1) 151.5 <.01
Alcohol dependence 10 (0.3) 19 (0.1) 72.9 .16
Alcohol use 47 (1.2) 53 (0.4) 191.3 <.01
Anxiety 291 (7.5) 630 (4.9) 51.8 <.01
Balance impairment 242 (6.2) 361 (2.8) 120.2 <.01
Chronic kidney disease 210 (5.4) 411 (3.2) 67.9 <.01
Stage 1 6 (0.2) 16 (0.1) 23.2 .66
Stage 2 13 (0.3) 43 (0.3) -0.7 .98
Stage 3 134 (3.4) 258 (2.0) 70.6 <.01
Stage 4 32 (0.8) 42 (0.3) 150.3 <.01
Stage 5 8 (0.2) 8 (0.1) 228.5 .02
Unspecified 71 (1.8) 124 (1.0) 88.1 <.01
Congestive heart failure 209 (5.4) 307 (2.4) 123.7 <.01
Constipation 162 (4.2) 270 (2.1) 97.1 <.01
Depression 308 (7.9) 666 (5.2) 51.9 <.01
Dialysis 1 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 9.5 1.00
Fatigue 496 (12.8) 1153 (9.0) 41.3 <.01
Glucocorticoid use 13 (0.3) 27 (0.2) 58.2 .17
History of falling 48 (1.2) 35 (0.3) 350.6 <.01
Hypertension 1366 (35.2) 3799 (29.8) 18.1 <.01
Muscle weakness 146 (3.8) 212 (1.7) 126.3 <.01
Myocardial infarction 33 (0.8) 56 (0.4) 93.6 <.01
Nausea 233 (6.0) 432 (3.4) 77.2 <.01
Neuropathy 105 (2.7) 212 (1.7) 62.7 <.01
Osteopenia 278 (7.2) 597 (4.7) 53.0 <.01
Osteoporosis 633 (16.3) 1062 (8.3) 95.8 <.01
Parkinson’s disease 30 (0.8) 33 (0.3) 198.7 <.01
Revascularization 0 (0.0) 15 (0.1) -100.0 .03
Sleep-related conditions 394 (10.1) 1307 (10.2) -1.0 .86
Smoking 77 (2.0) 201 (1.6) 25.9 .08
Sedative-hypnotics
Benzodiazepine 1024 (26.4) 2674 (20.9) 25.8 <.01
Prescription insomnia drug 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) - 1.00
Transient ischemic attack 38 (1.0) 83 (0.7) 50.4 .04
Unstable angina 34 (0.9) 81 (0.6) 37.9 .11
Vitamin D deficiency 213 (5.5) 553 (4.3) 26.5 <.01
CCI, mean ± SD [median] 0.6±1.0 [0] 0.0±0.8 [0] 54.5 <.01
OA diagnosis, n (%)
Hip only 555 (14.3) 1656 (13.0) 10.1 .03
Knee only 1757 (45.2) 6551 (51.3) -11.9 <.01
Knee and others 645 (16.6) 1734 (13.6) 22.2 <.01
Hip and others 175 (4.5) 458 (3.6) 25.5 <.01
Only hip and knee 116 (3.0) 323 (2.5) 18.0 .12
Hip, knee, and other 55 (1.4) 130 (1.0) 39.0 .04
Index drug characteristics
Tramadol, n (%)
IR 865 (22.3) 3345 (26.2) -15.0 <.01
ER 30 (0.8) 111 (0.9) -11.2 .56
Non-tramadol opioids, n (%)
IR 2805 (72.2) 8881 (69.6) 3.8 <.01
ER 421 (10.8) 1,122 (8.8) 23.3 <.01
Index opioid dose (in MME), mean ± SD [median] 60.3±186.9 [30] 51.6±106.5 [30] 16.9 <.01
Physician specialty on index, n (%)
    PCP 793 (20.4) 2586 (20.3) 0.7 .84
    Orthopedist 482 (12.4) 1672 (13.1) -5.3 .26
    Rheumatologist 98 (2.5) 320 (2.5) 0.6 .96
    Other 1673 (43.1) 4716 (36.9) 16.5 <.01
    Missing 1398 (36.0) 5145 (40.3) -10.7 <.01