Ecological Factors Spatial Durbin Model Decomposition Estimates
Estimate Lag Estimate Direct Indirect Total
COVID-19 Policy-related Factors
Calendar Month of the First Reported Case in the State [n, %]*
January Reference
February -0.253 -0.288 -0.253 -0.673 -0.927
March -0.375 0.380 -0.345 0.333 -0.011
April -0.407 0.231 -0.396 0.048 -0.348
May -0.368 0.026 -0.378 -0.257 -0.635
June to December -0.586 0.845 -0.521 0.955 0.434
% Positive for COVID-19 0.059 *** -0.048 *** 0.057 *** -0.035 ** 0.022 **
Social Distance Score 0.062 -0.136 * 0.056 -0.185 -0.129
Stringency Index 0.015 ** -0.017 ** 0.014 ** -0.017 ** -0.003
Health Behaviors
Food Insecurity 0.000 0.086 0.011 0.148 * 0.160 *
Chlamydia Rate (log) -0.034 0.173 -0.024 0.260 0.236
% Physical Inactivity 0.002 -0.009 0.002 -0.013 -0.011
% Excessive Drinking -0.002 0.025 0.000 0.043 0.043*
% Adult Obesity -0.009 * -0.026 * -0.013 ** -0.054 *** -0.066 ***
Clinical Burden
% Low Birthweight -0.022 0.002 -0.023 -0.008 -0.031
% Diabetic 0.008 0.022 0.011 * 0.044 * 0.055 *
Premature Age Adjusted Mortality (log) 0.711 *** -0.469 * 0.702 *** -0.234 0.467
Clinical Care
Primary Care Physicians Rate (log) -0.003 -0.005 -0.003 -0.009 -0.011
Preventable Hospitalization Rate 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hospital Beds (log) 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.006
Nursing Home Beds -0.005 * -0.001 -0.005 * -0.006 -0.011
Long-term Care Beds (log) 0.008 * 0.025 *** 0.010 ** 0.048 *** 0.058 ***
Mental Health Provider Rate (log) -0.001 -0.080 *** -0.010 -0.136 *** -0.146 ***
% With Annual Mammogram -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.004 -0.005
% Influenza Vaccinations^ -0.004 0.003 -0.004 0.002 -0.002
Socio-economic Factors
% of Workforce in Education/Health-care/Social Assistance Field 0.006 0.018 * 0.009 0.036 ** 0.045 **
% of Workforce in Construction -0.019 * -0.027 -0.024 ** -0.063 * -0.086 **
% of Workforce in Manufacturing 0.001 0.006 0.002 0.011 0.012
Income Inequality Ratio 0.076 * -0.063 0.078 ** -0.056 0.022
% Adults with Some College Education -0.004 -0.001 -0.004 ** -0.005 * -0.009 **
% Unemployment 0.039 0.040 0.045 0.096 0.141
% Children in Single-parent Households 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.008 0.011
Social Association Rate (log) 0.011 0.038 ** 0.014 ** 0.073 ** 0.087 **
% Uninsured Adults 0.014 0.001 0.015 0.014 0.028 *
% 65 Years Old and Over 0.055 *** -0.009 0.055 *** 0.024 0.079 **
% Less Than 18 Years of Age 0.016 0.020 0.018 0.044
% African American 0.006 0.002 0.007 * 0.009 0.016 *
% Native Americans -0.007 0.000 -0.007 -0.006 -0.013
% Hispanic -0.003 0.008 -0.002 0.011 * 0.009
% Female 0.018 -0.057 ** 0.013 -0.081* -0.068
Residential Segregation Non-White/White 0.001 0.007 * 0.002 0.013 ** 0.015 **
Physical Environment
Air Pollution-particulate Matter (2.5) 0.012 -0.035 0.009 -0.050 -0.041
% Severe Housing Problem -0.023 *** 0.005 -0.024 *** -0.009 -0.033
% Rural -0.001 0.005 * 0.000 0.008 ** 0.007 *
% Homeownership 0.004 -0.005 0.004 -0.006 -0.003
% Public Transportation 0.001 0.000 0.001 -0.001 0.000
 
Rho^ 0.447***