Inclusion Criteria
  • Continuously enrolled in an active, self-insured plan for 36- month study time frame (April 2015 to March 2018)
  • Age 18 to 64 during the study time frame
  • Met one of the following:
    • Study group: Participated in the digital DPP program with enrollment dates between April 2016 and March 2017
    • Control group: Met the clinical criteria for program eligibility based on biometric, self-reported health risk assessment, or claims data (BMI ≥ 25 and one of the following: prediabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or tobacco use) in baseline year
Exclusion Criteria
  • Did not meet inclusion criteria for the study
  • Type 2 diabetes, Type 1 diabetes, or diabetic drug prescription during the baseline year
  • TIA/stroke, AMI, CHF hospitalization, cardiac surgery, or bariatric surgery during the baseline year
  • Pregnancy, eating disorder, alcohol/substance abuse, organ transplant, cancer treatment, dialysis treatment or Type 1 diabetes during program year 1